It was caused by the meltdown of the No 4 light water graphite moderated reactor in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Apart from the initial. The nuclear reactor accident of 26 April in Chernobyl, USSR, led to numerous investigations in Austria concerning radition levels in the environment. Consequently measures were drawn up by the Austrian government in an effort to minimize the doses to the general public. Kiev (AFP) – Ukraine is still suffering from the trauma of the world's worst civil nuclear accident at Chernobyl but has nonetheless turned the hazardous fuel into.
Coronavirus not China's ChernobylKiev (AFP) – Ukraine is still suffering from the trauma of the world's worst civil nuclear accident at Chernobyl but has nonetheless turned the hazardous fuel into. Although the assessment of the danger of the Chernobyl disaster was not reduced between the first and the third survey, the political opposition to the future use. delegation touring Russia and Ukraine was demonstrated the consequences of the accidents at the nuclear installations of Chelvabinsk and Chernobyl.
Chernoble 'We're getting less radiation here than on the plane' VideoА man who was inside Chernobyl reactor.
Chernoble raten Chernoble 54. - Kurzer Abriss der EreignisseDer CSF wurde geschlossen. Nuclear and radiation accident. Sport Spezial disaster occurred on April 25—26,when technicians at reactor Unit 4 attempted a poorly designed experiment. Dozens more contracted serious radiation sickness; some of these people later died. Kirschenbaum 2 episodes, Ross Armstrong
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Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. She has never been back to Pripyat, though; it would upset her too much to see it now.
But she takes pride in tending the flowers around her Chernobyl hotel. Gennady's 33 years working in the exclusion zone might have been leading up to one meeting at the end of this week.
It is being held in a school in Narodichi, the town in the outer zone. Here, scientists, community members, medical experts and officials from the state agency that manages the exclusion zone are gathering to discuss a change that could transform this district's future.
For the first time since the boundary was drawn, the zone is set to change. Three decades of research have concluded that much of it is safe - for food to be grown and for the land to be developed.
Narodichi is one of its least contaminated places. Jim and Gennady are presenting their conclusions at the meeting. Before it is under way, I have arranged to visit the town's kindergarten, where the children are playing outside in the sunshine.
A rainbow-painted picket fence at the edge of their playground contrasts almost ludicrously with grey, half-built tower blocks next door.
There were children here before the accident. Tatiana Kravchenko, a woman with a perpetual kind smile and who is wearing a thick, bright pink coat, is the kindergarten manager.
She remembers the evacuation. Eventually, people have come back, new children have been born and gradually the kindergarten started filling up again.
Now we have children here. Most of the time, Tatiana says, she does not think of her community as being within the exclusion zone.
I wish that we could build something here - that our community could start to bloom. Back in the meeting, Gennady peers over red-rimmed glasses, attentively listening to what is being said.
Discussions are taking longer than expected. Much of the community input seems to reflect Tatiana's thoughts - that it is time for restrictions to be lifted here.
People affected by the accident receive financial compensation from the government. Here, in a town of high unemployment, in a country where the average wage is less than USD per month, that income is important.
And many still fear Chernobyl radiation - and the effect that it might still have on their health, and the health of their children.
After many years of research, understanding and explaining the long-term health legacy of the accident has been infuriatingly complicated. It is conclusive that around 5, cases of thyroid cancer - most of which were treated and cured - were caused by the contamination.
Authorities failed to prevent contaminated milk from being sold in the region; many who were children at the time drank it receiving large doses of radioactive iodine.
Ulana Khomyuk 4 episodes, Paul Ritter Anatoly Dyatlov 4 episodes, Robert Emms Leonid Toptunov 4 episodes, Sam Troughton Alexandr Akimov 4 episodes, Karl Davies Viktor Proskuryakov 3 episodes, Michael Socha Mikhail 3 episodes, Laura Elphinstone Oksana 3 episodes, Jan Ricica Oksana's Kid 3 episodes, Adrian Rawlins Nikolai Fomin 3 episodes, Alan Williams KGB Chairman Charkov 3 episodes, Con O'Neill Viktor Bryukhanov 3 episodes, Douggie McMeekin Yuvchenko 2 episodes, Nadia Clifford Svetlana Zinchenko 2 episodes, David Dencik Mikhail Gorbachev 2 episodes, Gerard Kearns Pravik 2 episodes, Mark Lewis Jones General Pikalov 2 episodes, Adam Lundgren Brazhnik 2 episodes, Michael Shaeffer Blond Man 2 episodes, Jamie Sives Sitnikov 2 episodes, Ron Cook Old Maternity Doctor 2 episodes, Povilas Jatkevicius Kibenok 2 episodes, Jay Simpson The solution chosen was to enclose the wrecked reactor by the construction of a huge composite steel and concrete shelter, which became known as the "Sarcophagus".
It had to be erected quickly and within the constraints of high levels of ambient gamma radiation. The design started on 20 May , 24 days after the disaster, and construction was from June to late November  This major construction project was carried out under the very difficult circumstances of high levels of radiation both from the core remnants and the deposited radioactive contamination around it.
The construction workers had to be protected from radiation, and techniques such as crane drivers working from lead-lined control cabins were employed.
The construction work included: erection of walls round the perimeter, clearing and surface concreting of surrounding ground to remove sources of radiation and to allow access for large construction machinery, construction of a thick radiation shielding wall to protect the workers in reactor No.
During the construction of the sarcophagus, a scientific team re-entered the reactor as part of an investigation dubbed "Complex Expedition", to locate and contain nuclear fuel in a way that could not lead to another explosion.
These scientists manually collected cold fuel rods, but great heat was still emanating from the core. Rates of radiation in different parts of the building were monitored by drilling holes into the reactor and inserting long metal detector tubes.
The scientists were exposed to high levels of radiation and radioactive dust. The concrete beneath the reactor was steaming hot, and was breached by now-solidified lava and spectacular unknown crystalline forms termed chernobylite.
It was concluded that there was no further risk of explosion. The official contaminated zones saw a massive clean-up effort lasting seven months.
Defence forces must have done much of the work. Yet this land was of marginal agricultural value. According to historian David Marples, the administration had a psychological purpose for the clean-up: they wished to forestall panic regarding nuclear energy, and even to restart the Chernobyl power station.
Scavengers have since removed many functioning, but highly radioactive, parts. Many, if not most of them, exceeded radiation safety limits.
The urban decontamination liquidators first washed buildings and roads with "Bourda", a sticky polymerizing fluid DeconGel , designed to entrain radioactive dust and, when dry, could then be peeled off and compacted into configurations, akin to carpet rolls, in preparation for burial.
A unique "clean up" medal was given to the clean-up workers, known as "liquidators". To investigate the causes of the accident the IAEA used the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group INSAG , which had been created by the IAEA in In summary, according to INSAG-1, the main cause of the accident was the operators' actions, but according to INSAG-7, the main cause was the reactor's design.
This was stated to be inherent not only in operations but also during design, engineering, construction, manufacture and regulation.
Views of the main causes were heavily lobbied by different groups, including the reactor's designers, power plant personnel, and the Soviet and Ukrainian governments.
This was due to the uncertainty about the actual sequence of events and plant parameters. After INSAG-1 more information became available, and more powerful computing has allowed better forensic simulations.
The first Soviet official explanation of the accident was by means of presentations from leading Soviet scientists and engineers to a large number of representatives from IAEA member states and other international organisations at the first Post-Accident Review Meeting, held at the IAEA in Vienna between 25 and 29 August This explanation effectively placed the blame on the power plant operators.
The UKAEA INSAG-1 report followed shortly afterwards in September , and on the whole also supported this view, based also on the information provided in discussions with the Soviet experts at the Vienna review meeting.
For instance; "During preparation and testing of the turbine generator under run-down conditions using the auxiliary load, personnel disconnected a series of technical protection systems and breached the most important operational safety provisions for conducting a technical exercise.
It was stated that at the time of the accident the reactor was being operated with many key safety systems turned off, most notably the Emergency Core Cooling System ECCS , LAR Local Automatic control system , and AZ emergency power reduction system.
Personnel had an insufficient understanding of technical procedures involved with the nuclear reactor, and knowingly ignored regulations to expedite the electrical test completion.
The main process computer, SKALA, was running in such a way that the main control computer could not shut down the reactor or even reduce power.
Normally the computer would have started to insert all of the control rods. The computer would have also started the "Emergency Core Protection System" that introduces 24 control rods into the active zone within 2.
All control was transferred from the process computer to the human operators. It was held that the designers of the reactor considered this combination of events to be impossible and therefore did not allow for the creation of emergency protection systems capable of preventing the combination of events that led to the crisis, namely the intentional disabling of emergency protection equipment plus the violation of operating procedures.
Thus the primary cause of the accident was the extremely improbable combination of rule infringement plus the operational routine allowed by the power station staff.
On the disconnection of safety systems, Valery Legasov said in , "It was like airplane pilots experimenting with the engines in flight.
This view was reflected in numerous publications and artistic works on the theme of the Chernobyl accident that appeared immediately after the accident,  and for a long time remained dominant in the public consciousness and in popular publications.
The trial took place from 7 to 30 July in a temporary courtroom set up in the House of Culture in the city of Chernobyl, Ukraine.
Five plant employees the former deputy chief engineer Anatoly S. Dyatlov ; the former plant director Viktor P. Bryukhanov ; the former chief engineer Nikolai M.
Fomin ; the shift director of Reactor 4, Boris V. Rogozhin ; and the chief of Reactor 4, Aleksandr P. Kovalenko and Gosatomenergonadzor USSR State Committee on Supervision of Safe Conduct of Work in Atomic Energy inspector Yuri A.
Laushkin were sentenced to 10, 10, 10, five, three and two years respectively in labor camps. Anatoly Dyatlov was found guilty "of criminal mismanagement of potentially explosive enterprises" and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment—of which he would serve three  —for the role that his oversight of the experiment played in the ensuing accident.
In a Commission of the USSR State Committee for the Supervision of Safety in Industry and Nuclear Power reassessed the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident and came to new insights and conclusions.
Based on that, INSAG published an additional report, INSAG-7,  which reviewed "that part of the INSAG-1 report in which primary attention is given to the reasons for the accident," and this included the text of the USSR State Commission report translated into English by the IAEA as Annex I.
By the time of this report, Ukraine had declassified a number of KGB documents from the period between and related to the Chernobyl plant.
It mentioned, for example, previous reports of structural damage caused by negligence during construction of the plant such as splitting of concrete layers that were never acted upon.
They documented more than 29 emergency situations in the plant during this period, eight of which were caused by negligence or poor competence on the part of personnel.
In the INSAG-7 report, most of the earlier accusations against staff for breach of regulations were acknowledged to be either erroneous, being based on incorrect information obtained in August , or less relevant.
The INSAG-7 report also reflected the view of the USSR State Commission account which held that the operators' actions in turning off the Emergency Core Cooling System, interfering with the settings on the protection equipment, and blocking the level and pressure in the separator drum did not contribute to the original cause of the accident and its magnitude, although they may have been a breach of regulations.
In fact, turning off the emergency system designed to prevent the two turbine generators from stopping was not a violation of regulations.
The primary design cause of the accident, as determined by INSAG-7, was a major deficiency in safety features,  : 22 in particular the "positive scram" effect due to the control rods' graphite tips that actually initially increased reactivity when control rods entered the core to reduce reactivity.
Yet "post-accident studies have shown that the way in which the real role of the ORM is reflected in the Operating Procedures and design documentation for the RBMK is extremely contradictory", and furthermore, "ORM was not treated as an operational safety limit, violation of which could lead to an accident".
Even in this revised analysis, the human factor remained identified as a major factor in causing the accident; particularly the operating crew's deviation from the test programme.
The assertions of Soviet experts notwithstanding, regulations did not prohibit operating the reactor at this low power level. INSAG-7 also said, "The poor quality of operating procedures and instructions, and their conflicting character, put a heavy burden on the operating crew, including the chief engineer.
The accident can be said to have flowed from a deficient safety culture, not only at the Chernobyl plant, but throughout the Soviet design, operating and regulatory organizations for nuclear power that existed at that time.
In summary, the major factors were:  : 18— The reactor had a dangerously large positive void coefficient of reactivity.
The void coefficient is a measurement of how a reactor responds to increased steam formation in the water coolant. Most other reactor designs have a negative coefficient, i.
Faster neutrons are less likely to split uranium atoms, so the reactor produces less power negative feedback effect.
Chernobyl's RBMK reactor, however, used solid graphite as a neutron moderator to slow down the neutrons , and the cooling water acted as a neutron absorber.
Thus neutrons are moderated by the graphite even if steam bubbles form in the water. Furthermore, because steam absorbs neutrons much less readily than water, increasing the voids means that more moderated neutrons are able to split uranium atoms, increasing the reactor's power output.
This was a positive feedback regenerative process which makes the RBMK design very unstable at low power levels, and prone to sudden energy surges to a dangerous level.
Not only was this behaviour counter-intuitive, this property of the reactor under certain extreme conditions was unknown to the crew.
There was a significant flaw in the design of the control rods that were inserted into the reactor to slow down the reaction rate by neutron absorption.
In the RBMK design, the bottom tip of each control rod was made of graphite and was 1. Only the upper part of the rod was made of boron carbide , which absorbs neutrons and thereby slows the reaction.
With this design, when a rod was inserted from the fully retracted position, the graphite tip displaced neutron-absorbing water, initially causing fewer neutrons to be absorbed and increasing reactivity.
For the first few seconds of rod deployment, reactor core power was therefore increased, rather than reduced.
This feature of control rod operation was counter-intuitive and not known to the reactor operators. Other deficiencies were noted in the RBMK reactor design, as were its non-compliance with accepted standards and with the requirements of nuclear reactor safety.
While INSAG-1 and INSAG-7 reports both identified operator error as an issue of concern, the INSAG-7 identified that there were numerous other issues that were contributing factors that led to the incident.
These contributing factors include:. The force of the second explosion and the ratio of xenon radioisotopes released after the accident led Yuri V.
Dubasov in to theorise that the second explosion could have been an extremely fast nuclear power transient resulting from core material melting in the absence of its water coolant and moderator.
Dubasov argued that there was no delayed supercritical increase in power but a runaway prompt criticality which would have developed much faster.
He felt the physics of this would be more similar to the explosion of a fizzled nuclear weapon , and it produced the second explosion.
Khlopin Radium Institute measured anomalous high levels of xenon — a short half-life isotope — four days after the explosion. This meant that a nuclear event in the reactor may have ejected xenon to higher altitudes in the atmosphere than the later fire did, allowing widespread movement of xenon to remote locations.
Both his and analyses argue that the nuclear fizzle event, whether producing the second or first explosion, consisted of a prompt chain reaction that was limited to a small portion of the reactor core, since self-disassembly occurs rapidly in fizzle events.
Dubasov's nuclear fizzle hypothesis was examined in by physicist Lars-Erik De Geer who put the hypothesized fizzle event as the more probable cause of the first explosion.
This jet then rammed the tubes' kg plugs, continued through the roof and travelled into the atmosphere to altitudes of 2. The steam explosion which ruptured the reactor vessel occurred some 2.
Although it is difficult to compare releases between the Chernobyl accident and a deliberate air burst nuclear detonation, it has still been estimated that about four hundred times more radioactive material was released from Chernobyl than by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki together.
However, the Chernobyl accident only released about one hundredth to one thousandth of the total amount of radioactivity released during nuclear weapons testing at the height of the Cold War ; the wide estimate being due to the different abundances of isotopes released.
The initial evidence that a major release of radioactive material was affecting other countries came not from Soviet sources, but from Sweden.
It was Sweden's search for the source of radioactivity, after they had determined there was no leak at the Swedish plant, that at noon on 28 April, led to the first hint of a serious nuclear problem in the western Soviet Union.
Hence the evacuation of Pripyat on 27 April 36 hours after the initial explosions was silently completed before the disaster became known outside the Soviet Union.
The rise in radiation levels had at that time already been measured in Finland, but a civil service strike delayed the response and publication.
Contamination from the Chernobyl accident was scattered irregularly depending on weather conditions, much of it deposited on mountainous regions such as the Alps , the Welsh mountains and the Scottish Highlands , where adiabatic cooling caused radioactive rainfall.
The resulting patches of contamination were often highly localized, and localised water-flows contributed to large variations in radioactivity over small areas.
Sweden and Norway also received heavy fallout when the contaminated air collided with a cold front, bringing rain.
Heavy, black-coloured rain fell on the city of Gomel. However, the TORCH report stated that half of the volatile particles had landed outside Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.
A large area in Russia south of Bryansk was also contaminated, as were parts of northwestern Ukraine. Studies in surrounding countries indicate that more than one million people could have been affected by radiation.
Recently published data from a long-term monitoring program The Korma Report II  shows a decrease in internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of a region in Belarus close to Gomel.
Resettlement may even be possible in prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.
In Western Europe, precautionary measures taken in response to the radiation included banning the importation of certain foods. In France officials stated that the Chernobyl accident had no adverse effects.
The Chernobyl release was characterised by the physical and chemical properties of the radio-isotopes in the core.
Particularly dangerous were the highly radioactive fission products , those with high nuclear decay rates that accumulate in the food chain, such as some of the isotopes of iodine , caesium and strontium.
Iodine was and caesium remains the two most responsible for the radiation exposure received by the general population. Detailed reports on the release of radioisotopes from the site were published in  and ,  with the latter report updated in At different times after the accident, different isotopes were responsible for the majority of the external dose.
The release of radioisotopes from the nuclear fuel was largely controlled by their boiling points , and the majority of the radioactivity present in the core was retained in the reactor.
Two sizes of particles were released: small particles of 0. The dose that was calculated is the relative external gamma dose rate for a person standing in the open.
The exact dose to a person in the real world who would spend most of their time sleeping indoors in a shelter and then venturing out to consume an internal dose from the inhalation or ingestion of a radioisotope , requires a personnel specific radiation dose reconstruction analysis and whole body count exams, of which 16, were conducted in Ukraine by Soviet medical personnel in The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located next to the Pripyat River, which feeds into the Dnieper reservoir system, one of the largest surface water systems in Europe, which at the time supplied water to Kiev's 2.
Despite this, two months after the disaster the Kiev water supply was switched from the Dnieper to the Desna River. Groundwater was not badly affected by the Chernobyl accident since radionuclides with short half-lives decayed away long before they could affect groundwater supplies, and longer-lived radionuclides such as radiocaesium and radiostrontium were adsorbed to surface soils before they could transfer to groundwater.
Although there is a potential for transfer of radionuclides from these disposal sites off-site i. Bio-accumulation of radioactivity in fish  resulted in concentrations both in western Europe and in the former Soviet Union that in many cases were significantly [ vague ] above guideline maximum levels for consumption.
The 55 Cs provides a sharp, maximal, data point in radioactivity of the core sample at the depth, and acts as a date check on the depth of the 82 Pb in the core sample.
After the disaster, four square kilometres 1. The next generation appeared to be normal. On farms in Narodychi Raion of Ukraine it is claimed that from to nearly animals were born with gross deformities such as missing or extra limbs, missing eyes, heads or ribs, or deformed skulls; in comparison, only three abnormal births had been registered in the five years prior.
In , Soviet medical teams conducted some 16, whole-body count examinations on inhabitants in otherwise comparatively lightly contaminated regions with good prospects for recovery.
This was to determine the effect of banning local food and using only food imports on the internal body burden of radionuclides in inhabitants.
Concurrent agricultural countermeasures were used when cultivation did occur, to further reduce the soil to human transfer as much as possible.
The expected highest body activity was in the first few years, where the unabated ingestion of local food, primarily milk consumption, resulted in the transfer of activity from soil to body; after the dissolution of the USSR, the now-reduced scale initiative to monitor the human body activity in these regions of Ukraine, recorded a small and gradual half-decadal-long rise, in internal committed dose , before returning to the previous trend of observing ever lower body counts each year.
This momentary rise is hypothesized to be due to the cessation of the Soviet food imports together with many villagers returning to older dairy food cultivation practices and large increases in wild berry and mushroom foraging, the latter of which have similar peaty soil to fruiting body, radiocaesium transfer coefficients.
In a paper, a robot sent into the reactor itself returned with samples of black, melanin -rich radiotrophic fungi that grow on the reactor's walls.
Of the , wild boar killed in the hunting season in Germany, approximately one thousand were contaminated with levels of radiation above the permitted limit of becquerels of caesium per kilogram, of dry weight, due to residual radioactivity from Chernobyl.
The caesium contamination issue has historically reached some uniquely isolated and high levels approaching 20, Becquerels of caesium per kilogram in some specific tests; however, it has not been observed in the wild boar population of Fukushima after the accident.
In , long-term empirical data showed no evidence of a negative influence of radiation on mammal abundance. On high ground, such as mountain ranges, there is increased precipitation due to adiabatic cooling.
This effect occurred on high ground in Norway and the UK. The Norwegian Agricultural Authority reported that in a total of 18, livestock in Norway required uncontaminated feed for a period before slaughter, to ensure that their meat had an activity below the government permitted value of caesium per kilogram deemed suitable for human consumption.
This contamination was due to residual radioactivity from Chernobyl in the mountain plants they graze on in the wild during the summer.
On April 25 and 26, , the worst nuclear accident in history unfolded in what is now northern Ukraine as a reactor at a nuclear power plant exploded and burned.
Shrouded in secrecy, the incident was a watershed moment in both the Cold War and the history of nuclear power. More than 30 years on, scientists estimate the zone around the former plant will not be habitable for up to 20, years.
The disaster took place near the city of Chernobyl in the former USSR, which invested heavily in nuclear power after World War II. A few months after reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant went up in toxic flames in , it was encased in a concrete and steel "sarcophagus" to contain the radioactive material inside.
That aging structure, seen here, was covered with a larger, newer containment housing in Chornobyl former Ivankiv Luhyny Narodychi Ovruch Poliske.
Chernobyl Pripyat ghost town. Poliske ghost town Vilcha ghost town. Administrative divisions of Kyiv Oblast. Baryshivka Bila Tserkva Bohuslav Boryspil Borodianka Brovary Fastiv Ivankiv Kaharlyk Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Makariv Myronivka Obukhiv Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi Poliske Rokytne Skvyra Stavyshche Tarashcha Tetiiv Vasylkiv Volodarka Vyshhorod Yahotyn Zghurivka.
Berezan Bila Tserkva Boryspil Brovary Bucha Fastiv Irpin Obukhiv Pereiaslav Pripyat Rzhyshchiv Slavutych Vasylkiv.
Bohuslav Boyarka Chernobyl Kaharlyk Myronivka Skvyra Tarashcha Tetiiv Ukrainka Uzyn Vyshhorod Vyshneve Yahotyn. Urban-type settlements Category:Kyiv Oblast.
Chernobyl disaster. Comparison with other radioactivity releases Comparison with Fukushima Cultural impact Deaths Elephant's Foot Groundwater contamination TORCH report.
Aleksandr Akimov Anatoly Dyatlov Vasily Ignatenko Valery Khodemchuk Valery Legasov Mykola Melnyk Vassili Nesterenko Vladimir Pikalov Volodymyr Pravyk Nikolai Tarakanov Leonid Telyatnikov Leonid Toptunov.
Exclusion Zone Chernihiv—Ovruch railway Chernobyl power plant Kopachi Opachychi Poliske Red Forest Tarasy Velyki Klishchi Vilcha Yaniv Polesie Reserve Aravichy Dzernavichy Pripyat amusement park Azure swimming pool Avanhard stadium FC Stroitel Energetik cultural palace Jupiter factory Polissya hotel Slavutych.
Chernobyl Children International Children of Chernobyl Benefit Concert Chernobyl Forum Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme Chernobyl Shelter Fund Friends of Chernobyl's Children State Institution for Radiation Monitoring and Radiation Safety.
Chernobyl miniseries Chernobyl liquidators Chernobyl necklace Chernobylite Sarcophagus New Safe Confinement Samosely National Chernobyl Museum.
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Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.Die Nuklearkatastrophe von Tschernobyl ereignete sich am April in Reaktor-Block 4 des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl nahe der gegründeten ukrainischen Stadt Prypjat. Chernobyl ist eine US-amerikanisch-britische Miniserie des Senders HBO, die vom 6. Mai bis zum 3. Juni ausgestrahlt wurde. Im deutschsprachigen. Die Nuklearkatastrophe von Tschernobyl ereignete sich am April in Reaktor-Block 4 Mit The Other Report on Chernobyl (Kurzbezeichnung TORCH) wurde ein „Gegenreport“ zur Ausarbeitung des Tschernobyl-Forums veröffentlicht. Chernobyl [dt./OV]. Staffel 1. ()X-Ray Die fünfteilige Drama-Serie erzählt die schockierende Geschichte der Reaktor-Katastrophe von Tschernobyl.