Erwin Geschonneck (* Dezember in Bartenstein, Kreis Friedland, Ostpreußen; † März in Berlin) war ein deutscher Schauspieler. Seine. Geschonneck agiert als einer von Arbeitersportlern in Kuhle Wampe (R: Slatan Dudow) sowie als Komparse bei Erwin Piscator an der "Jungen Volksbühne". Noch zu Brechts Lebzeiten verließ Geschonneck das Ensemble, um sich stärker dem Film zu widmen → Auszug Theater-Wirken siehe hier. Szene mit Erwin.
Erwin GeschonneckMatti Geschonneck wurde am 8. Mai in Potsdam in der ehemaligen DDR geboren. Der Sohn des prominenten Schauspielers Erwin Geschonneck wuchs bei. Geschonneck agiert als einer von Arbeitersportlern in Kuhle Wampe (R: Slatan Dudow) sowie als Komparse bei Erwin Piscator an der "Jungen Volksbühne". Matti Geschonneck ist mit der Schauspielerin Ina Weisse verheiratet. Er drehte etliche Filme für das Fernsehen, nur einen Kinofilm: Moebius. Matti Geschnonneck.
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Word in Definition. How to pronounce Geschonneck? Alex US English. From , the Luftwaffe focused on the Mediterranean Theatre as the area for maritime interdiction.
Generalmajor Johannes Fink was appointed to command Fliegerdivision 2 in November based in Marseilles. Fink advocated an aggressive campaign in the western Mediterranean and prosed attacking every eastbound convoy with his two units KG 26 torpedoes and KG missiles.
Elements of KG 77 were beginning to convert to torpedoes at this time to bolster combat power. Fink offered his resignation to Jeschonnek if refused his way.
Only 26 ships were sunk from January to August and the division failed to prevent the fall of Tunisia in May On 22 June the Wehrmacht commenced Operation Barbarossa , the invasion of the Soviet Union.
Before the campaign began, Jeschonnek remarked, "at last a proper war! The decision to attack the largest nation in the world with an air force that quantitatively was the same size as it had been the previous year and that was weaker in crew experience and training, was to prove a grave error.
In turn, the OKW warned the army field commanders to expect greater exposure to enemy air attacks than in future campaigns.
The campaign opened with successes. The Red Air Force suffered debilitating losses, and the German army advanced to the outskirts of Leningrad , Rostov and Moscow.
By the end of it was clear Barbarossa had failed. In bombing power the Luftwaffe had hardly any capability left. In December , the bomber force possessed only Thus, from an authorised strength of 1, bombers, the Luftwaffe had only in commission on 6 December , or 24 percent of authorised aircraft.
Overall strength fell from 3, in June to 2, in December Udet, Göring and Jeschonnek all shared a proportion of the blame.
Milch's production program, the "Göring program," was predicated on a Soviet defeat. The army's failure at Moscow created difficulties in increasing aircraft production.
Hitler ordered industry to abandon the plan as army losses and operations continued on the Eastern Front. Milch told Jeschonnek this signalled a reduction in productive capability in the aircraft industry; and more difficulties in finding labour and raw materials.
Milch replaced Udet after the latter's suicide and strove to increase production. In the OKL, there remained considerable scepticism as to the size of the plan.
In March , Jeschonnek objected to Milch's call for increases in fighter production. Jeschonnek purportedly said, "I do not know what I should do with more than fighters!
One historian wrote, "in view of the attrition rates of and , Jeschonnek's March comment can only be described as remarkable.
Jeschonnek was firmly of the view that the defeat of the Soviet Union, not air defence, was the prerequisite to a successful prosecution of the war.
Hitler and Göring supported the dominance of the bomber over fighter production. Through , the size of the Luftwaffe on the Eastern Front diminished.
In mid-November the Battle of Stalingrad headed towards disaster when several Axis armies were encircled. In an attempt to regain lost prestige, Göring assured Hitler the armies could be supplied by air.
Jeschonnek and the general staff agreed to the airlift with scarcely a comment. On the 24 November Richthofen noted a series of conversations in which he urged an immediate breakout.
Jeschonnek apparently had no opinion. His silence ensured the OKH received no air staff support in its effort to persuade Hitler to abandon Stalingrad and left the air arm with an impossible task of re-supplying the army in the pocket.
It transpired that Hitler and Jeschonnek had met at the Berghof days before to discuss the matter. Jeschonnek assured Hitler that the Demyansk pocket could be repeated with adequate aircraft and airfields.
Hitler preferred to keep the army in Stalingrad and order Manstein to break into the city, after declaring in September that the German army would not be forced away.
Göring had given his word to Hitler and forbade Jeschonnek to say anything. In , Milch learned of this conversation and remarked in his diary, "deceit plus incompetence equals one Reichsmarschal!
During the entire siege, the only senior officers to go to the front were von Richthofen and Milch. The latter was deprecated by other Luftwaffe generals as being "just a civilian.
After the defeat at Stalingrad and the failure at Operation Blue , Jeschonnek's influence as chief of staff declined.
To escape Göring, he lobbied for the command of Luftflotte 4 , vacated by Richthofen in the spring, Jeschonnek, for unknown reasons, was turned down in favour of Otto Dessloch.
Jeschonnek noted to Göring, that non-combat losses were severely effecting combat readiness. High attrition and reduced training time for pilots were the cause.
In mid, the General Staff came to the conclusion that the employment of dwindling German air power in support of the army was unlikely to yield strategic results.
The interdiction of rail transport was reasonably successful, but prior to the offensive Jeschonnek noted that, "Luftwaffe strength was not sufficient to guarantee victory.
Fritz Kless and Jeschonnek created a Generalkommando special staff to over-see the creation of a long-range bomber force.
The strategic bomber group was independent an under the command of the OKL, not a parent air fleet. Robert Ritter von Greim's Luftflotte 6 , with some support from Luftflotte 4, was assigned seven bomber wings to carry out the offensive  — KG 55 , KG 3 , KG 4 , KG 27 , KG 51 , KG 53 and KG It was felt the Luftwaffe could render greater assistance to the army this way.
Surviving intelligence maps show the crude oil and ball bearing plant at Saratov was also considered. The facilities at Gorkiy drew most attention for it produced 15 percent of Ts and was the largest plant west of the Urals.
In error, planners targeted the State Motor Vehicles Plant No. The Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. The offensive opened against Gorki on 4 June The Molotov automobile factory, which did produce T parts, was severely damaged.
The Krasnoye factory, remained untouched. German intelligence selected the target based on knowledge of their own industry's vulnerability to the loss of rubber production.
The plant was heavily damaged. The oil targets at Saratov received tons of bombs from 12 to 15 June—SU 66 75 and SU 65 76 were bottle-necks, for despite the vast oil reserved in the Soviet Union, few plants could refine crude oil into high aviation octane fuel.
Mid-way through the offensive, Albert Speer , armaments minister, and other technocrats, drawing on the experience of RAF Bomber Command 's offensive over Germany, intervened and began meddling in target selection.
Speer formed a committee "Working Committee on Economic Objectives for Air Attack" on 23 June Hewel's support was crucial in persuading Hitler to sanction the offensive against power plants in accordance with Jeschonnek's successor, Korten and Speer, in the autumn, Such intelligence would have been redundant had Barbarossa succeeded, but the offensive's failure left the "German armed forces paying the price.
Jeschonnek supported the Kursk offensive with the vast majority of German aerial strength in the conviction the Battle of Kursk would prove to be a major victory.
Nevertheless, the ultimate failure of the Kursk offensive, following upon the German defeat in North Africa, caused even Hitler to turn against his Chief of Air Staff.
Göring had already suggested to Hitler that Jeschonnek should be replaced as Chief of Air Staff, but Hitler demurred.
In RAF Bomber Command began bombing operations against German ports which set in motion one of the longest wartime campaigns for the Luftwaffe — known as the Defence of the Reich Reichsverteidigung.
On 21 September , Jeschonnek issued a directive that expected German fighter forces Jagdwaffe to protect Germany in the manner "linked directly with the strategic [that is, offensive] concept for the continued conduct of air warfare.
In , a publication issue by the OKL stated fighter forces were expected to carry out offensive and defensive operations, but "these defensive tasks are carried out in an offensive manner.
The early successes in France and Norway in , reduced the necessity for the defence of Germany and these commands were dispatched to the English Channel.
The entry of the United States of America into the war appeared to make little difference. The Eighth Air Force had been bloodied in , and the pilots of Luftflotte 3 respected the new enemy, but Germany itself remained virtually inviolate by day in The western fighter defences seemed to be holding their own, prompting Jeschonnek to remark to one of his staff, "Galland can take care of the [daylight] defence in the west with one wing.
Jeschonnek's attitude to the American threat was contradictory. Jeschonnek was impressed so he sent Boetticher to see Hitler.
Hitler dismissed the data after Göring convinced him the aircraft was of poor quality. Jeschonnek wrote to Boetticher, "we are lost. For years I have, on the basis of your reports, forwarded demands to Hitler and Göring, but for years my requests for expansion of the Luftwaffe have not been answered.
We no longer have the air defence I requested and which is needed. Conflicting demands have been made by Hitler. We no longer have any time.
The end of was disastrous for the German war effort; Stalingrad, Alamein, the Torch landings, with the growing intensity of night attacks by Bomber Command, which merged into the Combined Bomber Offensive , strained Jeschonnek.
Hitler and Göring were determined to regain the initiative and retain powerful air fleets at the fronts while increasing the size of night and day fighter forces in Germany.
Jeschonnek requested a field command to escape the mounting pressure but was turned down. Thereafter, he "pressed forward" with these insurmountable ambitions.
At the end of June — Blitz Week —Jeschonnek requested an updated list from Speer as to the crucial points in the war economy that needed additional protection.
The air war had shifted from a battle along the periphery of German-occupied Europe, to a battle of attrition over Germany. In July In August , single and 86 twin-engine fighters were destroyed.
Ominously, American fighter escorts were gaining greater penetrations into German airspace restricting the amount of time and space German fighter pilots had to intercept American bombers.
Jeschonnek and fellow staff officers had ignored the industrial, technical and logistical basis that modern wars were fought on; "that curious blindness which led him in early to wonder what the Luftwaffe would do with fighters had now led his air force and nation into a hopeless situation.
Jeschonnek also failed to recognise the warning signals that British air power was growing. He still thought in terms of an offensive air force and preferred to strike back at British cities, to "fight terror with terror", a view consistent with Hitler's.
German night-fighter strength was inadequate and neither Jeschonnek nor Göring had any great sympathy for the arm. The Eastern Front absorbed a large number of mobile batteries denying the Germans to create strong points—one of its outstanding assets.
The defences had not been brought into line with the latest technology; some 30 percent lacked ranging equipment and only 25—30 percent had their own radar.
After their defeat in the Battle of the Heligoland Bight in , the British abandoned daylight raids in favour of night bombing.
The appointment of Arthur Harris , Air Officer Commanding AOC Bomber Command changed the nature of the night war. Area bombardment became the tactical method of destroying a target after the damning Butt Report in The result of improved navigational aids and new heavy bomber designs, the British carried out destructive air attacks on German cities, beginning with the attack on Lübeck in March , and then the bombing of Hamburg in July Jeschonnek, as the Chief of the General Staff, was not flexible enough to rise above the most rigid aspects of tradition and his own narrow intellectual orientation.
Jeschonnek's relationship with Göring rapidly deteriorated in Göring held Jeschonnek in high esteem when German arms were successful. When their relationship first became strained, Göring presented Jeschonnek with a riding horse to repair the damage.
Jeschonnek, the abrupt, frugal soldier, could never find the right approach to the informality-loving Göring. Jeschonnek withstood withering criticism which happened more frequently, since Hitler began to shut Göring out of his confidence, to deal directly with Jeschonnek: a fact which infuriated the Reichsmarschall.
Beppo Schmid claimed the formation of a de facto second general staff led by von Brauchitsch was the final straw for Jeschonnek.
These men often met with Göring and filtered down orders without Jeschonnek's knowledge. Another facet of the growing rift was Göring's jealousy of Jeschonnek's popularity.
He forbade Jeschonnek to visit the frontline. Als langjähriger Genosse und Antifaschist — und zudem beliebter Schauspieler — genoss er eine Art Narrenfreiheit.
Er nutzte diese Stellung, um immer wieder den Finger auf die Wunden zu legen. Herausragend war seine Darstellung des Lagerältesten Walter Krämer in Frank Beyers Romanverfilmung Nackt unter Wölfen , in die seine eigene Erfahrung als KZ-Insasse eingeflossen ist.
Im gleichen Jahr spielte er eine seiner populärsten Rollen, den Karbid-Kalle in der am Kriegsende angesiedelten und auf wahren Begebenheiten basierenden Komödie Karbid und Sauerampfer.
Dieser Film wurde als einziger DEFA-Film für den Oscar nominiert. In einer Kritikerumfrage wurde Geschonneck zum besten Schauspieler der ehemaligen DDR gewählt.
Am Dezember wurde Geschonneck zum Ehrenmitglied der neu gegründeten Deutschen Filmakademie ernannt. Register now Login.
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